Ashby, J. A., & Sperling, L. (1995). Institutionalizing Participatory, Client-Driven Research and Technology Development in Agriculture. Development and Change, 26(4), 753–770. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1995.tb00573.x
This article outlines that the key principles of Participatory Research and Development methodology are client-driven research, research designed to address client needs, the responsibility of testing is placed on the farmers, and holding all parties involved accountable for the technology is required. These issues overlap with Participatory/activist Research Methodologies where the client is interchangeable with ‘participant’. This article argues that Participatory Research and Development is necessary to deliver necessary agricultural technologies to the wide range of client needs. This article is important because it illustrates the importance of this research in creating tangible benefits to the farmers. It presents a methodology directed at affecting institutions first, and through this affect, local farmers second.