Boeyink, David E. 1990. Anonymous Sources in News Stories: Justifying Exceptions and Limiting Abuses. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 5(4): 233–46.
Abstract: As discussion intensifies, and critics exploit what they see as a serious press abuse of anonymous sources, this article explores current practices and policies, as well as examines justification for and danger of anonymous source usage. Seven guidelines are listed and discussed which may help editors and reporters decide whether to use the anonymous source: editor authorization, just cause, last resort, fullest possible identification, proportionality, just intentions, and second source verification.
Wang, C. C., & Redwood-Jones, Y. A. (2001). Photovoice ethics: Perspectives from Flint photovoice. Health education & behavior, 28(5), 560-572.
Abstract: Photovoice is a participatory health promotion strategy in which people use cameras to document their health and work realities. As participants engage in a group process of critical reflection, they may advocate for change in their communities by using the power of their images and stories to communicate with policy makers. In public health initiatives from China to California, community people have used photovoice to carry out participatory needs assessment, conduct participatory evaluation, and reach policy makers to improve community health. This article begins to address ethical issues raised by the use of photovoice: the potential for invasion of privacy and how that may be prevented; issues in recruitment, representation, participation, and advocacy; and specific methodological techniques that should be used to minimize participants’ risks and to maximize benefits. The authors describe lessons learned from the large-scale Flint Photovoice involving youth, adults, and policy makers.
Committee to Protect Journalists. 2012. Journalist Security Guide.
This guide is aimed for journalists who are covering news in a dangerous and changing world. It covers precautions and things that journalists need to do to take care of themselves and be effective in their work as they cover different kinds of news. The guide includes safety precautions, suggestions and recommendation for different kinds of journalists working in different regions in the world and reporting on different news items. It begins with a section covering basic preparedness for journalists either working locally or internationally. The next section covers how to assess and respond to risk such as threats, sexual violence or captive situations. For journalists working with technology, there is a section on how to be safe online, how to defend their data, and protect their communication online. For those reporting in war zones, this guide includes security training for them, the protective gear they need and how to use satellite technology in hostile environments. For those doing investigative reporting such as in organized crime, they need to know how to approach hostile subjects, access information and know warning signs that could mean trouble from the subjects. Security is also emphasized in terms of personal and family security. Finally the guide has a section that deals with stress and how journalists can take care of themselves.
Association for Progressive Communications. 2014. Digital Security First Aid Kit for Human Rights Defenders, available at https://www.apc.org/en/irhr/digital-security-first-aid-kit
Digital security First Aid Kit: a kit devised for those using the internet to campaign for social justice in the community.
The internet being the transformative public space that it is can be used to facilitate social justice and participatory political processes by the public. This space is also political, gendered, complicated, biased, increasingly surveyed, policed, and a space most women human rights defenders and sexual rights activists face violence. This is why it is important, the authors argue, to have strategies and tools that enable people to be safe and to use digital tools and spaces creatively and confidently. The kit includes thirteen sections that people can use to get resources and information when faced with different challenges in the digital space in the course of their activism. These sections address such issues as how to handle sensitive data; hijacked emails and accounts; hacked website or blog; online abuse; sending encrypted emails; erasing digital footprints; securing mobile device communication; and access to a blocked website anonymously. The kit is an important tool in an increasingly digitalized society and it is written for computer non-experts which makes it accessible to anybody including activists, students and researchers.