Public debate/influence

How to Write a Policy White Paper

By Enoka Bainomugisha @kingbaino


Action research involves solving a particular problem and to producing guidelines for best practice. When there are decision makers which need to be informed or swayed to solve a particular problem, White Papers are a good route research tool to use. White Papers are specific type of research papers aimed at influencing decisions. The purpose of a White Paper is to advocate that a certain position is the best way to go or that a certain solution is best for a particular problem (Sakamuro et al 2010). How you present the knowledge and research is just as important as how knowledgeable you are on the topic and what your research entails. A White Paper should be well researched and technically documented, demonstrating your understanding of the issue at hand (Knowledge Storm 2005).

While business White Papers seek to show the benefits of a product to consumers for sales purposes, non-business white papers often seek to influence policy. Policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve outcomes. Policy is also a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Whether in health, law, politics, trade or any other field, research can influence policy. Individuals and organizations can increase their chances of impacting policy through well-written White Papers.



The main characteristic of a White Paper is its format. The White Paper should be presented in the following order:

  1. Executive Summary

A brief summary on what the White Paper entails and is used to help the reader to quickly understand the paper’s purpose. The executive summary should be in the same order as the main report, include material present in the main report and be concise.

  1. Background / Problem(s)

Provide readers with the general background information on the issue at hand. Help the reader make their decision based on the understanding of the research. It is important to show the reader you are an expert on the subject, while not digressing from the main issues at hand. The problem or issue at hand should be stated clearly for the reader to see.

  1. Solution / Reccomendations

After explaining the background and problems, propose your solution or recommendations. The quality and utility of your solution or recommendation should be assessed using Double-S.M.A.R.T criteria: Specific; Measurable; Achievable; Results-Oriented; and Time-Bound. Solution-suggestive; Mindful of prioritization, sequencing & risks; Argued; Root-cause responsive; and Targeted. See Association for the Prevention of Torture article for detailed explanations.

  1. Conclusion

Your conclusion should appear as a result of the logical argument and information you have presented. Effective White Paper conclusions should propel readers to action that furthers your goals or solutions. The conclusion should briefly restate the main findings, and show readers why the goals and/or solutions presented in the previous section are in their interests. What makes white paper conclusions different than other conclusion is the emphasis on what the reader can do as a next step.

  1. Appendix

Place any appendices necessary.

  1. Works Cited

Place works cited at the end of your white paper.


General Rules

Length and content of the White Paper

The length of white papers is audience dependent. Generally, white papers to businesses, NGOs, or foundations should be kept to 12 pages or less. Longer topics should be split into multiple papers. White papers to governments tend to be longer (20 to 40 pages).

Graphics are important to white papers because of their ability to display information in an easier and more visibly appealing fashion. Do not use clip art or photos as they will make your white paper look like a brochure. If possible, include informative illustrations that walk the reader through a relevant process. Research shows that “pictograms,” the combination of words and pictures in a chart or diagram, communicate much more effectively than either words or images by themselves (Knowledge Storm 2005).



Use accessible language and avoid dense language or overuse of industry or technical jargon. Technical or industry jargon can be used when you are positive your audience is intimately familiar.

Different types of readers look for different perspectives. A lawyer might be concerned with the legal aspect of your solutions while a government official might be concerned with the feasibility of your solution.


Ethical Considerations  

The same ethical principles which govern your research should govern your White Paper. If your white paper references research you conducted, your appendix should include your ethics approval


Further Reading (Examples of White Papers) 

Association for the Prevention of Torture. 2008. Making Effective Recommendation.

Physitians Foundation. 2015. “Medicare Watch List Report”.

Ponemon Institute LLC. 2014. “Global Insights on Document Security”.

Toews, Vic, and Christian Paradis. 2010. “Canada’s Cyber Security Strategy.” October 3.


Further Reading (How to Write White Papers)

Dukeshire, Steven, and Jennifer Thurlow. “Understanding the Link Between Research and Policy.” Rural Communities Imp acting Policy (RCIP), 2002.

Knowledge Storm, and Content Factor. “Eight Rules for Creating Great White Papers,” 2005.

Sakamuro, Sachiko, Karl Stolley, and Charlotte Hyde. “White Paper: Purpose and Audience.” Accessed January 18, 2016.



Message in-a-box: Designing your strategy

Tactical Technology Collective, Message in-a-box, “Designing your strategy,”

This text focuses on ways how people can build a media-based advocacy campaign. It outlines the categories that a media design takes and what one needs to do before formulating one. The importance of carefully planning and managing the design right from conception, distribution to monitoring its impact is emphasized. Some of the things recommended while developing a design strategy include doing research to know what is happening in relation to your advocacy; having clear objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound; identifying stakeholders in the community who make up your target audience and participant communities; crafting your message which should be accurate and honest; identifying the resources and getting consent from every participant in your campaign to ensure your and their security and privacy. In media campaign the timing determines how effective it is; the article recommends having a timeline. In evaluation of impact decide which indicators will be used to measure how effective the media strategy has been.

From the website: Creating your own media, distributing it and monitoring its impact can be a long process, which may become confusing and overwhelming if it is not well-managed and carefully planned. Designing a media strategy will help; this is likely to be most successful when it is done as a group, with the people involved in your overall campaign or project.

Courts as Forums for Protest

Jules Lobel, Courts as Forums for Protest, 52 UCLA L. REV. 477 (2004)

This article focuses on courts as forums for protest. It argues that courts should not restrict debate on social issues that is sparked by lawsuits. It also suggests that judges should make rulings keeping in mind existing injustices in the society and rule in such a way that will encourage the government to address such injustices which might not be addressed otherwise. It puts forward the belief that winning or losing a case is not as important as influencing public debate on the issue in question. Various concepts are discussed in the book such as the model of the court as a forum for protest, the legitimacy of courts as forums for protests, articulation of norms and their enforcement and the role of lawyers in the courts as forums for protest.