Lavallée, L. F. (2009). Practical application of an Indigenous research framework and two qualitative Indigenous research methods: Sharing circles and Anishnaabe symbol-based reflection. International journal of qualitative methods, 8(1), 21-40.
Abstract: Increasingly research involving Indigenous people is being undertaken by Indigenous researchers, who bring forward worldviews that shape the approach of the research, the theoretical and conceptual frameworks, and the epistemology, methodology, and ethics. Many times such research bridges Western practices and Indigenous knowledges; however, bringing together these two worldviews can also present challenges. In this paper the author explores the challenges and lessons learned in the practical application of an Indigenous research framework and qualitative inquiry. Two qualitative Indigenous research methods, sharing circles and Anishnaabe symbol-based reflection, will be discussed.
Tactical Technology Collective, Message in-a-box, “Designing your strategy,”
This text focuses on ways how people can build a media-based advocacy campaign. It outlines the categories that a media design takes and what one needs to do before formulating one. The importance of carefully planning and managing the design right from conception, distribution to monitoring its impact is emphasized. Some of the things recommended while developing a design strategy include doing research to know what is happening in relation to your advocacy; having clear objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound; identifying stakeholders in the community who make up your target audience and participant communities; crafting your message which should be accurate and honest; identifying the resources and getting consent from every participant in your campaign to ensure your and their security and privacy. In media campaign the timing determines how effective it is; the article recommends having a timeline. In evaluation of impact decide which indicators will be used to measure how effective the media strategy has been.
From the website: Creating your own media, distributing it and monitoring its impact can be a long process, which may become confusing and overwhelming if it is not well-managed and carefully planned. Designing a media strategy will help; this is likely to be most successful when it is done as a group, with the people involved in your overall campaign or project.
Robertson, T., & Simonsen, J. (2012). Participatory Design. Routledge international handbook of participatory design.
Participatory design focuses on how collaborating in the design process of technologies used can be made effective by the participation of the people who are affected by the technology. The international handbook of participatory design is a guidebook which people can consult on participatory design. Put together by a team of experts, the handbook shows the importance of participatory design in research and practice. It has two sections, one focusing on the participatory design and the other on the application of participatory design. It covers such concepts as how to design a participatory approach, the methods for participatory design, tools and techniques, and participatory design for, with and by communities.
Simonsen, J., Svabo, C., Strandvad, S. M., Hansen, O. E., Samson, K., & Hertzum, M. (2014). Situated design methods. MIT Press.
This book’s main argument is that every design is situated and done from an important position in society. The book further states features of participatory design that include design methods, interactions between design, designers, design methods and users. Design also draws insights from different disciplines such as health and culture. The book includes eighteen situated design methods with cases and analysis of projects such as urban spaces and environmental systems. It describes methods for defining and organizing a design project, organizing collaborative processes, creating aesthetic experiences, and incorporating sustainability into processes and projects. Some of the design methods presented in the book include problem- and project- based approach.
McCann, Laurenelle. 2015. Experimental Modes of Civic Engagement in Civic Tech | Meeting People Where They Are. Edited by Daniel X. O’Niel. Chicago: Smart Chicago Collaborative.
The book focuses on what it means to build technology with people rather than focusing on the reasons for building the particular technology. Civic technologies are defined as the tools created to improve public life, to help each other, to make governments and communities safe, joyful and equitable places to live. It keeps the focus on people and communities rather than technology by using government resources directly into neighbourhoods. The author focuses on five criteria that prioritize people and work with them to build technology in their community for the greater good of the community in what makes up the 5 Modes of Civic Engagement in Civic Tech. They include: utilize existing social infrastructure; utilize existing tech skills and infrastructure; create two-way educational environments; lead from shared spaces; and distribute power. It also focuses on the differences between community organizing and civic tech.
Manzini, E. (2015). Design, when everybody designs: An introduction to design for social innovation.
Participatory design: the book describes new social innovations that can be observed in a changing world where people design projects that generate different or similar solutions causing social transformations. These new social innovations are characterized by expansive open co-design process in which new solutions are suggested and new meanings are created. The author also explains the differences in design by experts and by other individuals and how these designs interact. He also talks about how design experts can support meaningful social changes focusing on emerging forms of collaboration. The book draws from various projects across the globe and shows how design can trigger social innovation through collaborative action by experts and non-expert designers.
Barndt, D. (Ed.). (2006). Wild fire: Art as activism. Sumach Press
This is a collection of essays that focus on art as a means for driving social change. Further it investigates why art is made, for whom is it intended, and how it can be used to promote discussion and transformation at the community. By exploring different forms of art, the book seeks to inspire critical and artistic forms of social commentary and action by activists, artists, students, educators and community workers.